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Section 4.9.2, Effluent and emissions control (releases)

The application should describe the effluent monitoring program that will be the primary indicator of reactor facility performance in terms of releases to air, surface waters, groundwater and soils, from both operation and waste management activities. For more information, see CSA N288.5, Effluent monitoring programs at Class I nuclear facilities and uranium mines and mills [36].

The applicant should demonstrate that the program encompasses all measures to be carried out related to monitoring releases of radioactive and hazardous substances with potential environmental effects. The application should describe how the program integrates all site routines that will sample, measure and analyze radiological and hazardous substances and physical parameters.

The application should include detailed information on:

·       criteria established to identify the radioactive and hazardous substances that will be monitored, and the detection limits that will be set to verify the performance of the preventive and control measures taken to manage releases

·       inventory of potential radionuclides and physio-chemical elements that could be released and affect the environment

·       identification of the authorized limits (for example, dose to the public, derived release limits, action levels and discharge limits) and operational targets for releases and the mitigation of physical effects

·       alarm systems provided to respond to unplanned releases

·       availability targets for the various monitoring devices, and a maintenance program to assure sustained performance of monitoring equipment at their availability targets

·       documentation on worker qualifications and the training program for specialist staff and contractors participating in the implementation of this effluent monitoring program

·       documentation on quality assurance and quality control to be followed when undertaking specific monitoring tasks

·       documentation on procedures for sampling, analytical methods, calibration of equipment and data management

·       documentation outlining the audit and review process for each of the elements of the effluent monitoring program

The applicant should identify derived release limits (DRLs) for radionuclides such as tritium, iodine, carbon‑14, noble gases and particulates. The applicant should demonstrate how these DRLs were derived using mathematical equations that describe the transfer of radioactive materials through the environment to humans. For more information, see CSA N288.1, Guidelines for calculating derived release limits for radioactive material in airborne and liquid effluents for normal operation of nuclear facilities [37].

The information submitted should demonstrate how the radiological emissions will be monitored and controlled to conform to the ALARA principle.

The applicant should identify environmental action levels (EALs) for nuclear and hazardous substances released via airborne, waterborne or sewage discharge pathways. For more information, see CSA N288.8, Establishing and implementing action levels for releases to the environment from nuclear facilities [38].

The application should describe non-radiological aspects of site activity that could have environmental effects, including exposure to members of the public. The application should include detailed information on:

·       identification of the chemical and physical nature of the releases and the potential chemical and physical effects

·       identification of the authorized limits and operational targets for releases and the measures taken to comply with such limits

·       the offsite monitoring regime for hazardous substances and the physical effects they cause

·       the alarm systems for responding to unplanned releases

·       identification of the measures that will be taken to make appropriate data available to the authorities and the public

The application should include an explanation of the measures that will be taken to identify potential or expected releases of hazardous substances to the environment and to identify any physical effects to biota, such as impingement and entrainment or habitat loss.

Where applicable, the applicant should provide information on the monitoring of routine discharges of radioactive effluents and hazardous substances (such as SO2, NO2, CO2, ammonia, hydrazine, chlorine, morpholine and ozone-depleting substances).

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